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The Traits of Socially Innovative Companies

With Jerry Davis. Originally posted at https://hbr.org/2015/04/the-traits-of-socially-innovative-companies

In this article adapted from their new book, Jerry Davis and Chris White explore what makes some companies more fertile for social innovation — that is, the ongoing (rather than one-off) initiatives that have positive social impact while promoting the core mission of a business. While there are some factors that make social innovation more likely than not — such as intrapreneurs who will champion them — Davis and White find that competing for talent, strong brands, and leadership transitions all correlate with stronger social initiatives.

In the course of our research, we have found that some human capital-intensive industries are more inherently receptive to social innovation than others. Accounting and consulting firms are often highly responsive to the social demands of their employees. For example, interns at PricewaterhouseCoopers championed a social audit practice. We also found that the professionals we spoke with at Accenture, in offices on three continents, consistently lauded the firm for its willingness to support innovations, from Accenture Development Partnerships to professional programs for First Peoples in Canada and support for call centers in native communities. This fits with the idea that much innovation is driven by a war for talent. Businesses that require professionals with skills in high demand are virtually required to embrace the preferences of the next generation.

Firms with a strong brand to protect are also often social innovators receptive to intrapreneurs. Nike faced consumer backlash in the 1990s when malign labor practicesby some of its suppliers became widely known. Perhaps most notable was a story in Life magazine that included a photo of a Pakistani child sewing Nike-branded soccer balls, titled “Six cents an hour.” Protests and calls for boycotts put Nike in the center of battles around globalization.

Nike subsequently became an innovator in supply chain accountability and promulgated a rigorous supplier code of conducts, accompanied by third-party factory inspections. In early 2013, when factory conditions in Bangladesh came to light, Nike cut ties to some suppliers whose factories were deemed unsafe—even at the expense of its margins and in the face of declining profitability relative to competitors. Internal advocates for safety and labor rights in the supply chain have become powerful contenders within Nike. Because of its light footprint in Bangladesh, Nike was not among the Western brands implicated in the tragic factory collapse in Dhaka in April of that year.

In consumer packaged goods, SC Johnson has sourced raw materials from farmers in Rwanda, partnered with local providers to improve hygiene and sanitation in low-income urban communities in Kenya, and chosen to eliminate harmful chemicals from its production processes in spite of the negative consequences for its market share.

In retail, Whole Foods has eliminated plastic bags, worked to develop local suppliers, and opened stores with affordable products in low-income communities with limited access to fresh produce.

Cascade Engineering evolved from an industrial supplier to the auto industry to Michigan’s first certified B corporation, spawning a broad array of innovations from employee management (the Welfare-to-Career program described in chapter 2) to products such as the Hydraid BioSand Water Filter, a high capacity, low-cost household water filter aimed at low-income countries. These innovations often emerged from employee-generated ideas and even through employee-led initiatives.

A change at the top can also be transformative for social innovation within companies. When William Clay Ford Jr. took over as chairman of Ford, it signaled that the nearly century-old firm was open to change, from its environmental initiatives to its award-winning programs to combat HIV/AIDS in South Africa to its global Human Rights Code.

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New leaders do not have to have their family name on the door to encourage social innovation. In 2003, when Rámon de Mendiola took over as CEO of Florida Ice & Farm Company, Costa Rica’s leading beer and beverage producer, the firm was an old-fashioned and complacent incumbent facing imminent competition from world-class global competitors. Mendiola launched a campaign to increase efficiency and cut costs, followed by another campaign to introduce new products and increase revenues and profits, culminating in the acquisition of the PepsiCo business in Costa Rica. After building credibility inside and outside the organization, in 2008 Mendiola created a broad initiative to remake Florida as a triple-bottom-line business devoted to profit, planet, and people. He stated that most businesses are caterpillars that eat and eat; he wanted Florida to be a butterfly, which enchants and pollinates, combining business performance with social progress. The company committed to goals of being water neutral by 2012, carbon neutral by 2017, and ultimately zero waste. Its people initiatives included aggressive targets for employee volunteerism, partnering with Habitat for Humanity to build housing in the wake of an earthquake in 2009 and building facilities to provide fresh water access for villages in rural areas of Costa Rica. This approach has had a number of tangible benefits, including increased employee loyalty and retention, and, intriguingly, goodwill from potential acquisition targets, whose owners can rest easy in handing their businesses over to a company with a strong commitment to the triple bottom line.

There are plenty of examples of businesses that adopt a triple bottom line and manage to be both economically and socially sustainable, and they should serve to encourage grassroots social innovation. Perhaps the coming generation of leaders will come to embrace this approach as Ramón de Mendiola did, with similar results.

This post is adapted from the Harvard Business Review Press book Changing Your Company from the Inside Out: A Guide for Social Intrapreneurs.


Jerry Davis is the Wilbur K. Pierpont Professor of Management at the Ross School of Business and the editor of Administrative Science Quarterly.He is the co-author of Changing Your Company from the Inside Out: A Guide for Social Intrapreneurs.


Christopher J. White leads the Center for Positive Organizations at the University of Michigan. He is the co-author of Changing Your Company from the Inside Out: A Guide for Social Intrapreneurs.

Interview with Net Impact

Originally at https://netimpact.org/blog/6-questions-with-christopher-white

Christopher White is no stranger to bringing about positive change. He co-developed and teaches a class on social intrapreneurship at the Ross School of Business, and he leads the Center for Positive Organizations, which helps leaders build high-performing organizations and bring out the best in people. He’s also been consulting with purpose-driven organizations for 15 years. Now you don’t have to be a business student or a client to benefit from his insights—he recently co-authored the book Changing Your Company From the Inside Out, which is a guide for creating positive social change wherever you work. We caught up with Christopher recently to find out what inspires him, how his own work is evolving, and what advice he’d give anyone who’s looking for a meaningful career.

Now that more people are becoming social intrapreneurs, what’s the most encouraging trend you’re seeing as the field grows?

The receptivity of senior leaders to the energy and skill of social intrapreneurs. One might think that CEOs would be afraid of intrapreneurs, but that hasn’t been my experience at all. They love the high engagement and commitment. I sometimes talk about the generational sandwich we have right now. A lot has been written about the millennials’ desire for purpose, and there are lots of CEOs who had some of their formative years in the idealistic activism of the 1960s. If we can unleash intrapreneurs in the middle of that sandwich, we have a really great window of opportunity for creating change in organizations and in the world.

You write in the book about making a case within an organization to create change. What’s the most important skill when it comes to framing an issue well?

I’d say developing a master frame that fits well with the norms and culture of the organization, and then an adapted frame to match to the different interests of your target stakeholders. While there needs to be coherence and some consistency in the story being told, it is rarely one-size-fits-all in making the case effectively in complex organizations.

Which of your recommendations do people seem to have the most trouble implementing?

Using technology tools and data to understand the organizations in which you are operating. Although using software isn’t essential by any means to create change, I think we all rely on our instincts a lot. Daniel Kahneman and others have done Nobel Prize winning research into this phenomenon—and its pitfalls. Tools don’t replace judgment, but they can give us a new, additional line of sight. In the book, we introduce a couple, and innovations in the coming few years will offer tech-savvy change agents and managers a whole new set of opportunities.

How is your own approach to work evolving now?

I’m spending a lot of time thinking about how we can best partner with others to really increase our collective impact on the world. I feel like I am in the right place at the right time, and some exciting things are coalescing. I’m a part of the Ross School of Business, with its commitment to Positive Business, and we have a stellar group of faculty, staff, students, and leaders with the Center for Positive Organizations. And we are embedded within the larger phenomenon that includes Net Impact, Conscious Capitalism, Social Business, the B Team, and many more.

What advice do you give to college students and recent grads to find a career that inspires them?

I’d advise people to not to overlook the relationships with colleagues as a source of meaning, purpose, contribution, joy, creativity, support, energy, and fun. So many students are looking for the name of the company, or the job function, or the industry. All these things are factors, sure. But I’d say that within almost any organization, you can find fellow travelers that you enjoy spending time with, and with whom you enjoy creating something exciting that makes a positive difference in the world. It’s not about the name of the company, it’s about the people with whom you interact every day. Develop the skill of finding those people and finding ways to work with them 90 percent of the time.

Who inspires you?

The change agents we write about in Changing Your Company From the Inside Out, and those who come through the class, are my heroes. People like Kevin Thompson and Dave Berdish—these are guys most people don’t know about; they aren’t CEOs, but they have done really meaningful things to make a positive difference in complex organizations.

I’d also like to give a shout out to my co-author, Jerry Davis. Jerry’s a world-class scholar, a truly brilliant mind, but willing to try new things—and he is 100 percent committed to making a difference. He’s also really fun to work with: In most of our working sessions, we just shoot the breeze and make each other laugh for 90 percent of the time, and then get things done at the end.

Want to hear more? Changing Your Company from the Inside Out provides the tools to empower you to jump-start initiatives that matter to you—and that should matter to your company. Drawing on lessons from social movements as well as on the work of successful intrapreneurs, Gerald Davis and Christopher White provide you with a guide for creating positive social change from within your own organization. Get the book >

7 Smart Strategies That Will Cure Your Fear of Public Speaking

By Minda Zetlin at Inc.com. Originally at http://www.inc.com/minda-zetlin/7-smart-strategies-that-will-cure-your-fear-of-public-speaking.html

PRODUCTIVITY
7 Smart Strategies That Will Cure Your Fear of Public Speaking
Got stage fright? Reframe what you expect from a speech, and your attitude about it will change as well
IMAGE: Getty Images

Does the prospect of speaking in front of a live audience make you nervous? If you’re human, the likely answer is yes. In surveys, people routinely report public speaking as their number-one fear–ahead of their fear of death.

Chris White, who leads the Center for Positive Organizations at The University of Michigan, struggled with similar feelings. “Many of us can relate to this stomach-clenching, heart-pounding, throat-choking anxiety,” he says. “This is a problem for someone teaching MBAs and executives as part of his day job!”

But White used his leadership smarts to overcome this problem by reformulating his goals for every speech. It’s a process that he says will work for nearly any challenge that makes you feel overly pressured or nervous. Here’s his approach:

1. Stop hoping that your speech will be a smash hit.

“I knew both from my past experience of clamming up in front of groups, and from research, that having a performance orientation–‘this next talk has to be a home run!’– is often counterproductive,” White says. “As my stress level increased, my presentation skills would decline.”

White fought this phenomenon by reframing his ambitions for each presentation. Instead of trying to make every one a home run, he thought of each as an opportunity to learn and improve for next time. “Each talk became a ‘practice swing’ in which some things would go well and others could be adjusted,” he says.

Perhaps counterintuitively, this mental exercise actually improved his presentation skills by loosening the grip of stagefright. “Don’t swing for the fences,” he advises now. “Take a lot of practice swings.”

2. Make learning one of your goals.

“Research shows that having both performance goals and learning goals is often a better way to get you to your destination,” White says. You can harness this effect for public speaking and for many other kinds of tasks as well. “When setting an intention, create multiple kinds of goals: performance goals, contribution goals, and learning goals,” he says. “Among the goals, keep the learning orientation front and center in your mind as you take action.”

3. Consider the ultimate purpose of your talk.

This may seem to conflict with White’s suggestion to put more emphasis on learning and less on performance outcome. The difference is that, rather than focusing on your own success or failure, you consider the broader purpose of your talk. Are you trying to build awareness for your brand or product? Address a social problem that deserves greater attention? Inspire investors to invest or students to learn?

“When fueled by a sense of purpose and a desire to help others, our intrinsic motivation grows–and, accordingly, so does our productivity,” White explains. Studies have compared the productivity of those who heard from a beneficiary of their work, and those who have not, he adds. “Unsurprisingly, those who felt a strong sense of contribution dramatically outperformed those who had not–even when following the exact same work process.”

4. Notice if you’re putting undue pressure on yourself–and stop it!

“Obsessing about the performance outcome is not always the best way to go,” White notes. No matter how important the speech you’re making actually is, taking that pressure off yourself will only help. “In my case, reassigning the speech’s meaning from ‘hit a home run!’ to ‘take a good practice swing’ really helped lower self-imposed anxiety,” White says. “It opened up new possibilities for learning and improvement every time.”

5. Good or bad, get feedback about each speech.

“To especially boost learning–as well as performance–create opportunities for self-reflection and feedback from others along the way,” White says. “As 70 percent of leadership development happens through experience rather than in the classroom or from books, using a process to catch every drop of insight from what we do could be more beneficial than taking another course. These days, however well or badly I feel a talk has been perceived, I try to do the same personal preparation and debrief.”

6. Find fellow travelers.

To find others who were working on similar stage fright issues, White began taking acting courses in his spare time. “This gave me supplemental practice outside of the workplace, and a structure to practice getting out of my comfort zone in front of people,” he says.

Even better, it gave White a new way to think about the question of good and bad performance. “The acting class format routinizes feedback on things that go well–and things that don’t!–such that when little things go wrong, they are looked at in the proper perspective,” he says. “Additionally, it created a gentle and fun, yet strong, accountability mechanism to keep me on track for at least the ten weeks of each course. I felt accountable to my scene partners… and had a big showcase on the calendar to focus my efforts if I felt tempted to slack off!”

There are many kinds of fellow travelers for various tasks, he adds. “It could be a training buddy, an acting group, a mentor or coach. It makes the journey more fun, and keeps you accountable along the way!”

7. Take the long view.

Seeing each speech as one point along a continuum of constant improvement will give you a much better attitude toward its success, or lack thereof. “No matter how big the talk, or how well it goes, there are always things that go well, and things that can be adjusted,” White says. “These days, my comfort with public speaking has increased, and so too my performance. And it will keep doing so–I have many practice swings ahead of me!”

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The Allure of Intrapreneurship

Originally appeared in Talent Management Magazine: http://www.talentmgt-digital.com/read-tm/november_2014?pg=15#pg15

All talent professionals greet the annual Gallup Engagement figures with some interest and curiosity. Increasingly, though, I have noticed a little less engagement (pun intended) with the numbers in recent years. It seems that the issue is so big, complex, and intractable that it is easier to just be sadly aware of its existence, than it is to systematically address it.

One potential remedy that is receiving increased attention from both media and talent professionals is intrapreneurship: the art and science of individuals navigating organizations to create change, even without the benefit of formal authority. Recent innovations in organizational structure and management approaches are increasingly putting emphasis on the ability of individuals to influence irrespective of position. Equipping employees with the skills to influence these more organic organizational designs is important. Perhaps even more important, though, is equipping people in heavily matrixed organizations to be able to get things done – to avoid being paralyzed by organizational inertia.

We systematically teach MBA students and executives the skills to be able to lead change without formally having the title of “leader”. Many of the examples we use in teaching are of initiatives that represent “positive change” – such as building a more humane workplace, developing products that are beneficial for less advantaged populations, advancing practices and processes that are better for the environment, or creating a healthy relationship with the communities in which we work. However, the same approaches are effective in driving just about any initiative. Indeed, we find that the skills needed to create change from within organizations are remarkably similar to those used to create change in society at large.

. From studying social innovations over the last century, reviewing the relevant and multi-disciplinary academic literature of the last 40 years, and interviewing dozens of change agents working within companies large and small, and around the world, we’ve identified four main variables that influence the success of intrapreneurial initiatives:

Timing Matters

Just because an idea is perceived as a non-starter today, does not mean it will be greeted with the same negativity tomorrow. When IBM was considering new program ideas for its global corporate social responsibility function, the idea of a “Corporate Peace Corps” was mooted… and was virtually laughed out of the conference room. Fast forward a few months: Chairman Sam Palmisano published his thought leadership doctrine of “The Globally Integrated Enterprise”, and began searching for programs that embody this philosophy. The Corporate Service Corps was launched, and became wildly successful and popular at Big Blue and beyond. The program was listed as one of IBM’s best 100 innovations of its first 100 years, and has subsequently been replicated in many top companies.

It’s Not What You Know, It’s Who You Know

Any large organization can be thought of as a complex network of formal and informal structures and relationships. The ability to understand the social terrain, and to navigate it effectively, is one of the key factors for successfully leading change from any seat in an organization. The characterization of “Mavens”, “Connectors”, and “Salespeople” as key players in the spread of ideas and epidemics, outlined by Malcolm Gladwell in The Tipping Point, actually holds up very well with regard to the academic research into network structures. This enables us to make sure to engage the right people, in the right sequence, to increase our chances of success in selling internally.

It’s Not What You Say, It’s How You Say It

A winning argument in Walmart may be doomed from the start in Whole Foods. We find that intrapreneurial superstars adapt the way their stories are told at two levels: master frame, which is tailored to the logics of the company culture and adaptation, where the intrapreneurs adapts the frame to the interests of a particular audience. For example, while overall concept will remain the same from conference room to conference room, the typical CFO will tend to have different hot buttons to the VP HR. The best intrapreneurs realize this and adjust their narrative and evidence accordingly.

Bring Friends

If the timing is right, the allies are in place, and the case fits the culture, then it is time to organize around the initiative. Typically, mobilizing allies can be done through utilizing the myriad existing structures in most organizations – such as town halls, brown bag lunches, intranets and so forth. Once momentum builds, we often see pilot initiatives preferred to fully-fledged efforts straight away (the exception being in projects that require high capital expenditure to get things started). The best intrapreneurs have mastered the art of building snowballs that often start small and unnoticed, but grow over time through the force of their own momentum.

The talent management fruits of enabling intrapreneurs are bountiful. Equipping people to time initiatives appropriately, line up supporters, make a resonant case, and mobilize allies could unlock a new level of performance and engagement in your organization.

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Reimagining our workplaces

Originally at http://www.workforce.com/articles/20410-positive-business-positive-results

Positive Business, Positive Results: An Open Invitation

The term ‘positive business’ refers to the application of this vision to the world of business — the belief that organizations can be reimagined to achieve extraordinary outcomes. Everyone has moments of greatness that stay with us for years, but why is it that those instances seem so fleeting?

Isn’t it possible to create a structure or apply processes that will allow us to have and celebrate more professional moments of greatness on a regular basis? Just think of the benefits this would not only bring to the individual workers, but also to the organization itself.

The term “positive business” refers to the application of this vision to the world of business — the belief that organizations can be reimagined to achieve extraordinary outcomes for shareholders, employees, communities and the environment. Many global businesses and innovative emerging companies have reimagined the way they organize and manage various aspects of their organizations, which entails everything from recruiting and workforce management to operations and legal to sales and marketing. These forward-thinking companies realize that, just like people, their organizations experience moments of greatness. These moments can be amplified in a virtuous cycle.

I invite you to envision positive business in your own organization and offer some ways to consider applying these practices across various functional areas and business processes.

An Invitation to Reimagine People Processes

Can you think of a particularly positive organization? Positive organizations, like beauty, are in the eye of the beholder. Maybe you are picturing a larger company like Whole Foods Market Inc., renowned for the empowering practices it employs for its “team members” (workers are not called “employees” here). Maybe you are picturing a local, “small giant,” like Zingerman’s Community of Businesses. On a recent visit to Ann Arbor, Michigan, President Barack Obama lauded the approach to management and leadership that has grown up at what Inc. magazine called the “coolest deli in America.”

What are some of the characteristics of these workplaces? Maybe it’s that leaders focus mostly on the things their people do well, rather than just correcting the things they do badly. Maybe it’s that employees connect a deep sense of meaning to their work. You probably came up with many other connotations in that mental exercise. The same thought process can be applied to the entire organization.

The industry standard recruiting process is to receive many résumés and cover letters, and then filter them to a candidate pool. Companies then conduct one or more rounds of interviews, and a reference and background check is conducted on the lucky candidates. Yet, as many of us know from painful experience, no matter how great a candidate seems through the interview process, we never really know how that person will work out in the job for weeks or even months.

By contrast, at companies like Menlo Innovations, which builds custom software, a large group is offered the chance to learn about the company through a paid trial. In multiple steps, people are paired with existing team members for a short, intense burst of collaborative work. Those who make the cut are paid to work as contractors on real projects for the company.

Beyond just technical skills, candidates Menlo are exploring whether they have a good cultural fit with each other. Eventually, once a candidate and team have had a chance to decide whether they choose each other, the new employee is selected. As Menlo’s CEO Richard Sheridan writes in his book “Joy, Inc.,” all of this is done in a way that is designed to create positive experiences for the candidates and do valuable work for the company, irrespective of whether a full-time job offer is ultimately forthcoming.

What about creating job descriptions? The industry standard is to describe in a long set of bullet points the responsibilities to be fulfilled in this role, as well as desired qualifications. While it is now almost 15 years since Gallup Inc.’s Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman showed the importance of managers adapting their approaches to each individual employeecorporate America (and the corporate world, in fact) has still not evolved past a one-size-fits-all approach to job descriptions.

A recent multiyear study, however, has shown that job crafting — processes for shaping one’s own role to align with personal values, interests and strengths — can facilitate a significant uptick in performance and engagement that remains over six months after the initial intervention.

As Brian Welle, Google Inc.’s people analytics director, said, “The job-crafting exercisehas enabled team members to more clearly define how their values, strengths and passions connect to what they do on a day-to-day basis. This insight has really helped people identify who they are and tap into what is most important to them at work, which has made a tremendous difference for us.”

This same approach can be extended to just about every organizational process, not just people development.

An Invitation to Reimagine Organizational Functions 

Another way to think of the corporation is as a collection of functions. Each of the functions can be considered individually as a way to take a closer look at how positive business practices play out in organizations.

As those of us who have undertaken a strict diet in our own lives know, lean living can be a stressful experience. Cue crankiness, fatigue, irritability — these are all symptoms that often have personal and systemic parallels in organizations put under stress.

Implementing lean production practices has been the industry standard for improving operations processes for over a generation now. The goals of reducing waste and variance in the system are systematically and rigorously pursued. Yet, implementing lean principles and practices can often be a draining experience for those involved. What if the approach to implementing lean were re-imagined to achieve its desired outcomes of reducing waste and variance, while not just maintaining the energy and engagement of those involved, but actually enhancing it?

Wallace Hopp, a business professor at the University of Michigan, has written extensively about how “managing the stress on the system” was one of the original tenets of lean production, but somehow got lost in the rush to reduce waste and variance. What adjustments might need to be made to make lean conducive to thriving, not just efficiency?

When we think of the law in organizations, we think mostly of risk mitigation, not value creation. To work optimally, though, the equation needs to be balanced.

“Efficient work systems can make jobs stressful, tedious and dehumanizing. They can also make jobs enjoyable, stimulating and rewarding,” Hopp said. “It all depends on how they are implemented. Positive lean achieves efficiency via work systems that energize and motivate workers, which in turn amplifies the productivity gains of traditional lean methods.”

Applying positivity can be effective in externally facing roles, too. Consider Sales: Procter & Gamble Co.’s chief customer officer, Bob Fregolle, has reoriented his $82 billion/year organization around principles of radical transparency, as well as relationship- and trust-building between his salespeople and their customers. The principles underlying Fregolle’s strategic bet are, on face value, consistent with research. In his book “Give and Take,” Adam Grant, a management professor at the University of Pennsylvania, cites research across a wide range of industries that shows openness and advice-seeking are much more persuasive in influencing scenarios, such as sales, than are pressuring tactics, flattery or trading favors.

But surely positive business cannot apply to support functions, right?

Wrong.

When we think of the law in organizations, we think mostly of risk mitigation, not value creation. To work optimally, though, the equation needs to be balanced. “Preventive law and positive law are two key elements in strategic planning. Unlike preventive law, which focuses on preventing or, at least, controlling legal risks, positive law emphasizes the value creation function of law,” explains George Siedel, a business professor at the University of Michigan. “In combination, these two elements offer businesses an opportunity to seize competitive advantage.”

We have seen the same principles apply to other functions — accounting, marketing, strategy and finance— to great effect. Is your department an exemplar of positive business?

Both organizational functions and their people processes can be reimagined in ways that are good for business and encourage people to thrive as human beings. No more of what Cascade Engineering founder and CEO Fred Keller calls “lazy thinking.” It is not good enough to just stop once you figure out how to meet the needs of just one stakeholder. Positive business requires you to keep going until you find integrative solutions that create great outcomes for all.

Positive business is an invitation to participate in creating something better for all. Change is not easy. Achieving this will require reimagining the functions and processes of organizations. Although referring mostly to product development, the late Steve Jobs famously said, “Everything around you was made up by people no smarter than you and you can change it, you can influence it, you can build your own things that other people can use.”

So, too, with organizations. You can change them and influence them, and you can build your own business that makes a positive difference in the world.

Chris White is the managing director of the Center for Positive Organizations at the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business. Comment below or email editors@workforce.com. Follow Workforce on Twitter at @workforcenews.

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Behind the scenes of Joy, Inc: Ann Arbor’s Menlo Innovations

Rich Sheridan and James Goebel have built a software company on the philosophy that work and workplaces can and should be joyful. And a large part of that involves getting the technology out of the way of real human interaction.

Full video here!

Rich Sheridan’s delightful book, Joy, Inc., can be bought here.

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